Ever ridden in a car with worn-out shock absorbers? Every bump is jarring, every corner stomach-churning and every red light an excuse to assume the brace position. Owning an undiversified portfolio can trigger similar reactions.
In a motor vehicle, the suspension system keeps the tires in contact with the road and provides a smooth ride for passengers by offsetting the forces of gravity, propulsion and inertia.
You can drive a car with a broken suspension system, but it will be an extremely uncomfortable ride, and the vehicle will be much harder to control, particularly in difficult conditions. Throw in the risk of a breakdown or running off the road altogether, and there’s a real chance you may not reach your destination.
In the world of investment, a similarly bumpy and unpredictable ride can await those with concentrated and undiversified portfolios or those who constantly tinker with their allocations based on a shortterm rough patch in the markets.
Of course, everyone feels in control when the surface is straight and smooth, but it’s harder to stay on the road during sudden turns and ups and downs in the market. And keep in mind that the fix for your portfolio breaking down is unlikely to be as simple as calling a tow truck.
For that reason, the smart thing to do is to diversify, spreading your portfolio across different securities, sectors and countries. That also means identifying the right mix of investments (e.g., stocks, bonds, real estate) that aligns with your risk tolerance, which helps keep you on track toward your goals.
Using this approach, your returns from year to year may not match the top-performing portfolio, but they aren’t likely to match the worst, either. More importantly, this is a ride you are likelier to stick with.
Just as drivers of suspensionless cars change their routes to avoid potholes, people with concentrated portfolios may resort to market timing and constant trading as they try to anticipate the top-performing countries, asset classes and securities.
Here’s an example to show how tough this is. Among developed markets, Denmark was number one in U.S. dollar terms in 2015 with a return of more than 23 percent. But a big bet on that country the following year would have backfired, as Denmark slid to bottom of the table with a loss of nearly 16 percent.1
It’s true that the U.S. stock market (by far the world’s biggest) has been a strong performer in recent years, holding the number three position among developed markets in 2011 and 2013, first in 2014, and sixth in 2016. But a decade before, in 2004 and 2006, it was the second worst-performing developed market in the world.2
Predicting which part of a market will do best over a given period is also tough. For example, while there is ample evidence to support why we should expect positive premiums from small-cap, low relative price and high-profitability stocks, these premiums are not laid out evenly or predictably across the map. U.S. small-cap stocks were among the top performers in 2016, with a return of more than 21 percent. A year before, their results looked relatively disappointing with a loss of more than 4 percent. International small-cap stocks had their turn in the sun in 2015, topping the performance tables with a return of just below 6 percent. But the year before that, they were the second worst, with a loss of 5 percent.3
If you’ve ever taken a long road trip, you’ll know that conditions along the way can change quickly and unpredictably, which is why you need a vehicle that’s ready for the worst roads as well as the best. While diversification can never completely eliminate the impact of bumps along your particular investment road, it does help reduce the potential outsized impact that any individual investment can have on your journey.
With sufficient diversification, the jarring effects of performance extremes level out. That, in turn, helps you stay in your chosen lane and on the road to your investment destination.
1 In U.S. dollars. MSCI developed markets country indices (net dividends). MSCI data © MSCI 2017. All rights reserved.
3 In U.S. dollars. U.S. small cap is the Russell 2000 Index. Frank Russell Company is the source and owner of the trademarks, service marks and copyrights related to the Russell indices. International small cap is the MSCI World ex USA Small Cap Index (gross dividends). MSCI data © MSCI 2017. All rights reserved.
Past performance is no guarantee of future results. There is no guarantee an investing strategy will be successful. Diversification does not eliminate the risk of market loss.
Indices are not available for direct investment; therefore, their performances do not reflect the expenses associated with the management of an actual portfolio. Frank Russell Company is the source and owner of the trademarks, service marks and copyrights related to the Russell indices. MSCI data © MSCI 2017. All rights reserved.
All expressions of opinion are subject to change. This article is distributed for informational purposes, and it is not to be construed as an offer, solicitation, recommendation or endorsement of any particular security, products or services. Dimensional Fund Advisors LP is an investment advisor registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
© 2017 Dimensional Fund Advisors LP. All rights reserved. Unauthorized copying, reproducing, duplicating or transmitting of this material is prohibited.